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FIG. 1.

preferentially binds to marginal cells of artificial epithelial wounds and increases their migration. Scratch wounds were created to confluent HaCaT cell cultures, and cells were added to the culture medium (260 bacteria per cell) for different time periods. Epifluorescence of cultures detected with anti- antibody after 6 h (A), 24 h (B) and 48 h (C). Light microscopic images of wounds at 48 h in the presence of TGF-β indicate faster closure of the epithelial wound sheets in -treated cultures than in control cultures (D).

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FIG. 2.

Intracellular colocalizes with lysosomal membrane structures in cells at the leading edge of the epithelial sheets. Scratched HaCaT cell cultures treated for 48 h with (ATCC 25586; 260 bacteria per cell) were simultaneously immunostained for and lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-1, followed by two fluorescent secondary antibodies, Alexa-488 and Alexa-546, respectively. Samples were analyzed by laser confocal microscopy, and optical z-axis sections were recorded. One optical section from the basal, mid-, and apical regions of the cells were presented together. Red channel (A and B) corresponding to Alexa-546 fluorescence reveals invasion, and green channel (C), corresponding to Alexa-488 fluorescence, reveals LAMP-1 expression. Red and green images were merged into an RGB file (D) showing colocalization (yellow/orange) of the two signals.

Bacterial infection may modulate the rate of cell proliferation and migration. Bacteria may also modify the effects of cytokines in infected tissue ( Statement Clutch Happy Village by VIDA VIDA Cheap Official Sale Get To Buy Discount Price Deals Ic4Zpm
). We studied the effect of F. nucleatum on the rate of closure of the epithelial wound. In the presence of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), the closure of the wounds was considerably faster in F. nucleatum -treated cultures (Fig. 1D ). Most sites along the migrating fronts fused in cultures treated with the bacteria by 48 h, while the wounds remained open in the control cultures. In the absence of transforming growth factor β, F. nucleatum did not accelerate reepithelialization. There was no morphological indication of cell death in the infected epithelial cells.

F. nucleatum alters epithelial cell signaling. The behavior of infected cells depends on both the direct toxic effects of the bacteria and the cell signaling pathways they turn on. To get an overview of the signaling profile of infected cells, HaCaT cells were exposed to F. nucleatum for 120 min and the cell extracts were analyzed for levels of 78 different protein kinases, utilizing the standardized Kinetworks immunoblotting system. Forty-six known kinases could be detected in the control and bacterium-treated cells. Compared to untreated cultures, F. nucleatum increased levels of 12 kinases and decreased levels of 2 kinases by 50% or more. Many of these kinases are involved in cell proliferation and cell survival signaling (Table Fashionable Sale Brand New Unisex Sheer Wrap Earthy Blues II by VIDA VIDA 7qenD7g0
). A particularly strong increase (about sevenfold) was observed in the cellular levels of DNA-dependent protein kinase, a kinase involved in the detection and repair of damaged DNA ( Stripe Shopper Bag Blue Mango Discount Clearance Cheap Buy Very Cheap Sale Online Cheap Marketable Dtu7G1
). An increase in levels of death-associated protein kinase 1 ( 62 ) and protein kinase CK-2, an enzyme involved in cell survival ( Modal Scarf raining leaves by VIDA VIDA Outlet Order Online RNskksCM
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), was observed. Levels of protein kinase C epsilon and cyclin-dependent kinases 7 and 9 were also increased in epithelial cells by F. nucleatum . Further, the bacteria stimulated levels of Etk/Bmx, S6 kinase p70, and RhoA kinase, enzymes connected to control of cell migration ( Calvin Klein Woman Printed Cottonblend Jersey Softcup Bra White Size M Calvin Klein Discount With Credit Card Discount Find Great Fashion Style Cheap Online Discount Really Cheap Inexpensive kt8BR
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, 56 ). Levels of germinal center kinase, related to stress response ( 40 ), and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, involved in cell proliferation ( 2 ), were decreased by the F. nucleatum challenge. All in all these results indicate that F. nucleatum exerts multiple effects on epithelial cells involving DNA damage and cell activation. As a result, signaling for cell survival, cell proliferation, and cell migration is stimulated in infected cells.

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Michele Stieven
Web Developer JS enthusiast

Hi folks! It’s been some time since my last article, I promise I’ll be more active!:)

Actually I’ve been pretty busy reviewing projects and helping devs structuring their apps, and what I saw most of the times is this: Angular gives you lots of features out of the box, which is why you probably chose it, but it appears that most devs are not taking full advantage of them. The features I’m talking about are Dependency Injection and Observables , but in this article I’ll be focusing only on Dependency Injection.

DI is not just an ‘add-on’ of the framework, it’s a built-in mechanism which powers Angular’s most useful features and there’s nothing that prevents you from exploring every single possibility it offers!

If we had to give DI a description, it is a pattern which lets you inject services (classes) into components without creating them manually and passing them through a constructor. Who provides the right services? Angular of course! And the mechanism is dictated by the way you compose your modules, Cashmere Silk Scarf PEARLS by VIDA VIDA 100% Guaranteed Sale Online Oz5y3qV8Z

That’s cool! But take a breath and think: what is a dependency?

A dependency is needed by in order to work properly. Most of the times a dependency is a service, but it could be something else. In fact, a component can have a dependency on Classes, Values or Objects. Let’s see the tools we have and how useful they are in our apps!

1) useClass

Remember that when you use the class name to specify a provider, Angular takes it and interprets it this way:

What this means is that we can take a class, even a blank one, and change it with another one:

This is pretty useful for mocking services during development, and it can be used to introduce a new service keeping the old class-name as well for compatibility reasons.

2) useValue

useValue is useful when you don’t want to provide a class, but a value (or an object!). Remember that a dependency is something that’s needed by something else, and a component could require an object! This is an awesome feature and we’ll discuss this later, for now just notice this: the base class we provide is overwritten by the object, therefore it’s useless.

It would be better to provide a string name, instead of an useless class, this way:

But again, this approach can lead to name collisions, and as always, there’s a better way that we’ll cover in a while!;)

3) useFactory

useFactory does what it says: it uses a factory (a simple function) and Angular provides the returned value of that function. This is useful when you have to do some checks or some operations before knowing what to provide.

Again, we’re using a string to identify the provider, it’s time to solve this.

4) InjectionToken

Now we’re facing the issue of providing string names AND providing classes that will be overwritten (and are, therefore, useless). What can we do?

Angular gives us InjectionToken (previously OpaqueToken, with some differences) which does exactly what it says: it creates a token (a name) to use in our provide field, instead of using strings or classes. Since every instance of InjectionToken is different, we don’t have to worry about naming collisions, even if we specify the same value at initialization phase.

Remember that those values are simple descriptions, they do nothing to our logic. So now we can use that token both in the module and the component, awesome!

5) Configuring a module fromoutside

This is where I wanted to end. You can use Dependency Injection to inject a configuration object into your modules , which you can use to configure your services! Sounds confusing? Let’s make an example.

Imagine we have a service which talks to an API, let’s say… , for example! It’s the most famous Headless CMS which lets you build your own custom models (city, person, employee, etc…), a sort of WordPress without templates. Since your data will only be accessible through the API, the team released some SDKs to facilitate the process of making the calls. Let’s make a service which uses this SDK (a really simple library) and let’s put this service into its own module, .

Beautiful! Now, the SDK needs to know our Space ID (our work area) and our Access Token in order to work. Let’s save them somewhere, shall we? Why don’t we create a file with an object in our module to st —

This is what you should NOT do if you want to create a reusable module. You’re making a useful module which can be reused across other apps, and if your module grows enough you could even think about publishing it to npm. It wouldn’t be nice to write on the GitHub page:

Ouch. What a bad idea. Your module needs to be configured from the outside! And if you read my previous article, you might have an idea on how to do that.


Yes! You probably already know that RouterModule uses a custom method in order to provide our configuration to the router: our Routes! They are in fact configuration objects!:) Let’s copy the approach.

So, here’s what to do:

That’s awesome! Now let’s dig into our and ask for that object into the constructor, as we always do with services, but with a different syntax:

Voilà! Now you have a [not really] awesome reusable module which can be configured from the outside!

I made for you a working example, you just need to replace the Space ID and the Access Token with your own (in AppModule ) and ask for one of your content types in AppComponent (in my case it was ‘’):

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Thank you for reading, see you soon! 😃

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Ralph Morton is an award-winning journalist and editor of Business Car Manager. Ralph writes extensively about the car and van leasing industry as well as wider fleet and company car issues. A former editor of What Car?, Ralph is a vastly experienced writer and editor and has been writing about the automotive sector for over 35 years.